Index of /tech/other/java

Icon  Name                    Last modified      Size  Description
[DIR] Parent Directory - [TXT] CHANGES 16-Apr-1998 11:32 96K [TXT] COPYRIGHT 16-Apr-1998 11:32 937 [TXT] LICENSE 16-Apr-1998 11:32 5.9K [DIR] docs/ 24-Feb-1998 17:12 -
                             README

                    Java(tm) Development Kit
                     JDK(tm) 1.1.6 Software

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
CONTENTS

  Overview of the Java Development Kit
    - Introduction
    - Purpose
    - Version Compatibility
    - Bug Fixes
    - What the JDK Software Contains
    - Where to Find More Information
    - Submitting Comments
    - Reporting Bugs and Requesting Features
    - JavaBeans(tm) and the Beans Development Kit

  Installing and Running the JDK Software
    - Installation Notes
    - Windows
      - Running JDK Tools in Microsoft Windows
      - Microsoft Windows PATH and CLASSPATH
      - Using the JIT Compiler
      - Microsoft Windows Installation Troubleshooting
      - Possible Problems with Winsock
    - Solaris
      - Running JDK Tools in Solaris
      - Solaris PATH and CLASSPATH
      - Solaris Installation Troubleshooting
    - Running Applets with the AppletViewer
    - Debugging Programs with the Debugger

  Deploying Java Applications
    - Runtime Environment
    - Installation


=======================================================================
                  OVERVIEW OF THE JAVA DEVELOPMENT KIT
=======================================================================

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
INTRODUCTION
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
This is version 1.1.6 of the Java Development Kit.  The Java 
Development Kit is a development environment for writing applets 
and applications that conform to the Java 1.1 Core API.  Its compiler 
and other tools are run from a shell and have no GUI interface. This 
version includes improvements in functionality, performance, and 
quality over version 1.0.2 of the Java platform, and includes bug fixes 
since version 1.1.5.

This is a maintenance release.  Changes made to the JDK software since 
the first 1.1 beta release are in the file named CHANGES.

Because there are no API changes in maintenance releases, we continue 
to refer to this platform as the Java platform 1.1 (rather than 1.1.6).   
While bugs have been fixed in version 1.1.6, the platform hasn't 
changed.

Although this is a maintenance release, the Win32 version of the Java 
Development Kit includes a significant performance enhancement. A 
production-quality version of Symantec JIT bytecode compiler is included. 
This is the same JIT previously packaged as an early-access product in 
the Win32 Performance Pack. Because the JIT is now included in the JDK 
software, the Performance Pack has been discontinued.

The Symantec JIT compiler is copyrighted (c), 1996-1998, by Symantec 
Corporation. All rights reserved.

In the Win32 version, all JDK tools use the JIT by default.
To disable the JIT, see "Using the JIT," below.
    
The Java platform 1.1 offers new capabilities:  Internationalization, 
signed applets, JAR file format, AWT (window toolkit) enhancements, 
JavaBeans(tm) component model, networking enhancements, Math package for 
large numbers, Remote Method Invocation (RMI), Reflection, database 
connectivity (JDBC), new Java Native Interface, Object Serialization, 
Inner Classes, and performance enhancements.

For further description of these features, see the "New Feature 
Summary" in the JDK documentation.

As part of our ongoing effort to improve the quality of the JDK 
software, we will continue to fix bugs and develop new features. In 
order to help us prioritize our bug-fixing effort, please submit any 
bugs you find as soon as possible, using the procedure described in 
the "Reporting Bugs" section below.

The Java Development Kit is a product of Sun Microsystems, Inc.  
JavaSoft(tm), an operating company of Sun Microsystems, develops the 
JDK software.


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
PURPOSE
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
The JDK software allows you to:

      - Develop applets that will run in browsers supporting the
        Java platform 1.1.

      - Develop applications.  Applications run without the
        need for a browser. (HotJava itself is written in the Java 
        programming language.)


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
VERSION COMPATIBILITY
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
In general, any applet or application that ran in version 1.0.2 of the 
Java Development Kit should run correctly in version 1.1.6.  A failure 
to do so is a bug, except for a small number of cases where 
compatibility has had to be broken to close potential security holes or 
fix implementation or design bugs.  

Of course, applets that depend on any new 1.1 APIs will not work on 
any browsers that support only 1.0.2, such as Internet Explorer 3.0 and 
Netscape 3.0.  However, in general, applets relying only on APIs 
defined in 1.0.2 (but compiled with the JDK 1.1 compiler) will run on 
1.0.2 browsers.  This "downwards" compatibility has not been 
extensively tested and cannot be guaranteed. 

For more details, see the document on compatibility at:

   http://java.sun.com/products/jdk/1.1/compatibility.html

If you find any such incompatibilities that are not listed on the
Compatibility web page, please report them to us as noted below
under "Reporting Bugs," and mention that they are compatibility
bugs.  Compatibility is critically important to us, and a cornerstone
of the promise: Write Once, Run Anywhere(tm).

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
BUG FIXES
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
As with any release, we will continue vigorously testing and debugging 
the JDK software.  If we uncover any important bugs, we will post them 
on the Java Developer Connection(sm) web site at:

   http://java.sun.com/jdc/bugParade/index.html

As always, your comments and bug reports are important to making 
future releases successful.  We will use your feedback to help plan 
future releases.  Please report bugs, request features and submit 
comments using the procedure noted below in the sections "Submitting 
Comments" and "Reporting Bugs and Requesting Features". 


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
WHAT THE JDK SOFTWARE CONTAINS
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

RUNTIME ----------------------------------------------------------

    - Core Classes (classes.zip)
            DO NOT UNZIP THIS FILE!  It must remain zipped for the
            compiler and interpreter to access the class files
            within it properly.  This file contains all of the
            the compiled .class files for the platform.

SOURCE FILES -----------------------------------------------------

    - Source Files for Public Classes 
            (src.zip file or src directory)
            This is the set of source files used to create the
            classes included in the core classes classes.zip 
            file (above).  These source files are provided for 
            information purposes only, to help developers learn
            and use the Java programming language.  They do not 
            include the private java.* classes or the sun.* 
            classes, and therefore cannot be compiled into a 
            complete classes.zip file.

            Do not modify these classes;  instead, create subclasses
            and override where you need to. These classes are 
            documented in the API Reference documentation, which is 
            generated by javadoc.  

            How this is installed depends on the platform:

             - On Windows, these are automatically unzipped for you
               during installation.

             - On Solaris, you must unzip the src.zip file yourself.
               You can get a free copy of the correct version
               of unzip in source form (which you must compile) from:

               http://www.cdrom.com/pub/infozip/zlib/

               or 

               ftp://ftp.cdrom.com/pub/infozip/zlib/

	       or

	       ftp://ftp.uu.net/pub/archiving/zip/UNIX/SUN/
              
TOOLS ------------------------------------------------------------

    - Java Compiler (javac)
            Compiles programs written in the Java programming language
            into bytecodes.

    - Java Interpreter (java)
            Executes Java bytecodes.  In other words, it runs 
            programs written in the Java programming language.

    - Jave Runtime Interpreter (jre)
	    Similar to the Java Interpreter (java), but intended for 
	    end users who do not require all the development-related 
            options available with the java tool.

    - Java AppletViewer (appletviewer)
            Used for testing and running applets.

    - Java Debugger (jdb)
            Helps you find bugs in programs.

    - Class File Disassembler (javap)
            Disassembles compiled files and prints out a
            representation of the bytecodes.

    - Java Documentation Generator (javadoc)
            Parses the declarations and documentation comments in
            a set of source files and produces a set of HTML pages
            describing the public and protected classes, interfaces,
            constructors, methods, and fields. Also produces
            a class hierarchy and an index of all members.

    - C Header and Stub File Generator (javah)
            For attaching native methods to code written in the 
            Java programming language.

    - Java Archive Tool (jar)
            Combines many class files and other resources
            into a single jar file.

    - Digital Signing Tool (javakey)
            Manages entities, including their keys, certificates,
            and the trust associated with them.

    - Native-To-ASCII Converter (native2ascii)
            Converts a native encoding file to an ascii
            file that includes the \udddd Unicode notation.

    - Java RMI Stub Converter (rmic)
            Generates objects from the names of compiled classes
            that contain remote object implementations.

    - Java Remote Object Registry (rmiregistry)
            Creates and starts a remote object registry on the
            specified port of the current host.

    - Serial Version Command (serialver)
            Returns the serialVersionUID for one or more classes
            in a form suitable for copying into an evolving class.

    - AWT 1.1 Conversion Tool (updateAWT)
            Included with the JDK AWT documentation,
            rather than in the bin directory.
            Updates deprecated 1.0 AWT names to new 1.1 AWT
            names (for Sun Solaris and UNIX systems, or Windows
            systems with the MKS toolkit).

    - Various C libraries and include files

JAVA DOCUMENTATION AND DEMOS ------------------------------------------

    - demo directory
            awt-1.1         AWT demos
            i18n            Internationalization demos

            Animator        General-purpose animator
            ArcTest         Test arc drawing and filling
            BarChart        Simple bar-chart applet
            Blink           Blinking, multicolored text
            CardTest        Test card layout manager
            Clock           Analog clock
            DitherTest      Test image dithering
            DrawTest        Draw points and lines
            Fractal         Fractal figures
            GraphLayout     Graph layout by iterated relaxation
            GraphicsTest    Test graphics operations
            ImageMap        Live-feedback image map
            JumpingBox      Catch the jumping box
            MoleculeViewer  Three-dimensional chemical model viewer
            NervousText     Nervous text
            SimpleGraph     Draw a simple graph
            SortDemo        Animated sorting algorithms
            SpreadSheet     Simple spreadsheet
            TicTacToe       Tic-tac-toe game
            WireFrame       Three-dimensional wire-frame model viewer

      RMI demos are available in the separately-downloadable 
      JDK documentation.  See the entry "Demonstration Applets
      and Applications" in the JDK documentation table of 
      contents for access.

    - README
            This file you are currently reading

    - CHANGES
            Changes made in the beta and final releases

    - COPYRIGHT
            Copyright notice for the JDK software

    - LICENSE
            License agreement for the JDK software

NOTE: The JDK software does NOT include a Web browser.  To obtain the 
HotJava(tm) Browser, see the HotJava Browser web page:

      http://java.sun.com/products/hotjava/


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
WHERE TO FIND MORE INFORMATION
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
This README file and the accompanying CHANGES, LICENSE, COPYRIGHT 
files, demo directory, and source code (src.zip) are the only
"documentation" included in this JDK software bundle. You can browse
the JDK software documentation by visiting the JavaSoft web site, or
you can download the JDK Software 1.1.6 Documentation Bundle from:

          http://java.sun.com/products/jdk/1.1/

The JDK Software 1.1.6 Documentation Bundle includes:

     - Release Notes
     - API Reference
     - Guide to New Features
     - Additional Demo Programs
     - Demo Overview Page
     - Tools Documentation

The Documentation Bundle is designed to be extracted into the JDK
software installation directory. If you download the ZIP archive
version, be sure to preserve the file path names when you extract the
files from the archive. (With pkunzip, specify the -d option.)

If you are new to the Java programming language, you will want to
browse or download the Java Tutorial at:

	http://java.sun.com/docs/books/tutorial/

For a comprehensive list of online documents, go to the JavaSoft
Documentation page at:

	http://java.sun.com/docs/

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
SUBMITTING COMMENTS
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
We are very interested in receiving your comments and suggestions as 
early as possible.  

If you have a specific feature request or bug to report, please 
refer to the next section for how to submit it. Send other comments 
and informal suggestions directly to us at our JavaSoft email addresses 
at Sun, which are listed at:

     http://java.sun.com/mail/

Here is a summary of what is on this web page:

 - Technical Help - Sun does not provide free technical help.
   See the above web page for some places to obtain help with your
   programming problems.

 - JavaSoft Email Addresses - The following are our most current
   email addresses as of this release.  Use these for sending 
   comments and informal suggestions. 

      java-intl@java.sun.com                   Internationalization
      java-awt@java.sun.com                    AWT package
      java-security@java.sun.com               Security package
      java-io@java.sun.com                     IO package
      java-net@java.sun.com                    Net package
      jdbc@wombat.eng.sun.com                  JDBC package
      jdbc-odbc@wombat.eng.sun.com             JDBC-ODBC bridge
      java-beans@java.sun.com                  Beans package
      reflection-comments@worthy.eng.sun.com   Reflection package
      jni@java.sun.com                         Java Native Interface
      javadoc@sun.com			       Javadoc Tool

   If your comment does not fall into any of those categories,
   please send it to:

      jdk-comments@java.sun.com                General comments

   While we are not able to respond individually to each comment,
   we do review all comments.


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
REPORTING BUGS AND REQUESTING FEATURES
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
To report bugs or feature requests, go to this web page:

     http://java.sun.com/cgi-bin/bugreport.cgi

This gives you instructions for checking if your bug is a duplicate
by allowing you to look in our known bugs list.  This also gives
instructions for how to submit bugs and request features.

When submitting a bug, be sure you include the version number of
the JDK software you are running.  You can get the version number of 
the JDK software by executing:

    java -version


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
JAVABEANS(tm) AND THE BEANS DEVELOPMENT KIT
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
A version of the Beans Development Kit (BDK) is also available for 
immediate download from JavaSoft.  BDK includes specific tools and 
support for JavaBeans developers such as the BeanBox test containers
and example beans. See:

    http://java.sun.com/beans/bdk_download.html

We will continue to ship the BDK in addition to the JDK software.  
Updates to the BDK, tools, and general JavaBeans information 
will be posted on a regular basis to the JavaBeans web site:

     http://java.sun.com/beans



=======================================================================
                INSTALLING AND RUNNING THE JDK SOFTWARE
=======================================================================

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
INSTALLATION NOTES
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    IMPORTANT: Please make sure you understand the Copyright
    and License information (in the files named COPYRIGHT and 
    LICENSE) before installing this release.
    
The JDK 1.1.6 software and documentation are available in two separate
downloadable compressed files, called "bundles".  They need to be 
downloaded separately into the same directory and unpacked as follows 
for the few html links between them to work.

Here are the abbreviated instructions.  (The installation procedure 
is different on different platforms, so these instructions are 
quite general.)

  1. Go to the download page for the Java Development Kit and download 
     the software and documentation separately:

        http://java.sun.com/products/jdk/1.1/

  2. Follow the installation instructions for your particular 
     platform at:

      http://java.sun.com/products/jdk/1.1/installation-solaris2.html

        OR

      http://java.sun.com/products/jdk/1.1/installation-win32-x86.html

  3. Unpack the software and documentation bundles according to the
     instructions on the web page given in step 2.  You should end up
     with the directory structure shown below.

  4. Set the PATH and CLASSPATH for Windows or Solaris as
     described in the section that follows.

  5. Use a web browser to go to your new, local JDK documentation
     table of contents by opening the "index.html" file in the "docs" 
     directory:  jdk1.1/docs/index.html


                           jdk1.1.6
    _________________________|_____________________________________
   |      |         |      |      |   |     |     |    |    |      |
README CHANGES COPYRIGHT LICENSE bin lib include demo src docs index.html
                                  |   |     |     |    |    |
                                                            |
                               _____________________________|_____
                              |       |        |       |          |
                             api  tooldocs relnotes  guide    index.html
                              |       |        |       |
  

   The "src" directory shown above originally appears as a "src.zip"
   file in the Solaris installation, which you must manually unzip.
   On Windows, the installer automatically unzips it for you.


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
RUNNING JDK TOOLS IN MICROSOFT WINDOWS
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
After installing the JDK software, you start a tool by typing its
name into the DOS window with a filename as an argument.  None of
the main JDK tools are Windows programs with GUI interfaces -- they
are all run from the DOS command line.  (For example, if you 
double-click on the compiler "javac" icon, it will briefly open and 
immediately close a DOS window, because that is not the proper way to 
run it.)

You can specify the path to a tool either by typing the path in 
front of the tool each time, or by adding the path to the startup file 
(autoexec.bat).  For example, if the JDK software is installed at 
C:\jdk1.1.6, to run the compiler on a file myfile.java, go to a DOS 
shell and execute this:

    Type:  C:\jdk1.1.6\bin\javac myfile.java

     -or- 

    Add    C:\jdk1.1.6\bin to your path statement
    Type:  javac myfile.java

See the next section about setting the PATH and CLASSPATH variables.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
MICROSOFT WINDOWS PATH and CLASSPATH
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
The CLASSPATH is not required, but if it is set, it will need to be
unset.  You may want to update the "path" variable for convenience.

     Developing in both versions 1.0.2 and 1.1.6 - If you want 
     to develop in both versions 1.0.2 and 1.1.6, you must
     set CLASSPATH (and PATH) separately for each one.  
     To run both versions simultaneously, you can run 
     each one from its own DOS window.  If you are running 
     only one at a time, you can write a batch script to
     switch the value of CLASSPATH (and PATH). 

     Windows NT only - If you are using Windows NT, it is  
     preferable to make the following environment variable  
     changes in the Control Panel. Start the Control Panel,  
     select System, then edit the environment variables. 

  1. PATH -  Add the absolute path of the "jdk1.1.6\bin" 
     directory to your PATH statement as follows. 

     The PATH statement enables Windows to find the executables 
     (javac, java, javadoc, etc.) from any current directory.

     To find out the current value of your PATH, at the
     DOS prompt type:

         C:\> path

     To change the PATH, open the AUTOEXEC.BAT file and make the
     change to the PATH statement. To edit the AUTOEXEC.BAT
     file in Windows 95: 

       i. Start a text editor by choosing "Start", "Programs", 
          "Accessories", and choosing WordPad or NotePad. 
      ii. Choose Open from the File menu and type "c:\autoexec.bat" 
          for the filename This will open the file for editing. 
     iii. Look for the PATH statement. Notice that the PATH statement
          is a series of directories separated by semi-colons (;).  
          Windows looks for programs in the PATH directories in order,
          from left to right. Look for other versions in the PATH.
          There should only be one path to a classes.zip file.
          When in doubt, put the java directory at the end of 
          the path statement. For example, in the following PATH
          statement, we have added the java directory at the end: 

           PATH C:\WINDOWS;C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND;C:\;C:\DOS;C:\JDK1.1.6\BIN 

     To make the path take effect, execute the following:

           C:\> autoexec.bat


  2. CLASSPATH Environment Variable - If you follow the default 
     installation, you do not need to set CLASSPATH, because the
     tools automatically set it for you.  If your CLASSPATH has 
     not previously been set, you can skip this step.

     UNSETTING CLASSPATH

       If you have previously set the CLASSPATH and want to
       unset it, you normally need to change the current value
       (at the command line) and the startup value (in a startup
       file or script).  For example, to see if it is currently 
       set, type:

          % set

       This lists all of the environment variables.  CLASSPATH
       will not appear if it is not set.

       If it is set, you can unset the current value by setting
       it to no value:

          % set CLASSPATH=

       Also open your startup file (autoexec.bat) or script and 
       remove the path to the Java platform classes from the 
       CLASSPATH environment variable, if you want the change to 
       be permanent.

     WHAT CLASSPATH DOES

       The CLASSPATH tells the Java virtual machine and other  
       applications (which are located in the "jdk1.1.6\bin" 
       directory) where to find the class libraries, such as 
       classes.zip file (which is in the lib directory).  
       By default, the java tools temporarily append the 
       following to whatever CLASSPATH you have explicitly 
       set in your startup file:

       .;[bin]\..\classes;[bin]\..\lib\classes.zip

       where [bin] is substituted by the absolute path to the   
       jdk1.1\bin directory.  Therefore, if you keep the bin and  
       lib directories at the same directory level (that is, if 
       they have a common parent directory), the executables 
       will find the classes.  You need to set the CLASSPATH only 
       if you move classes.zip or want to load a different library 
       (such as one you develop).  

     Refer to the Windows Installation Troubleshooting section below 
     if you have problems running the JDK software.


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
USING THE JIT COMPILER
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
The Win32 Just In Time (JIT) bytecode compiler converts virtual
machine bytecodes to native instructions before execution. This can
cause some delay in program startup and class file loading, but can
also reduce overall program execution time by a factor of ten.

In the Win32 version of the Java Development Kit, the JIT is part of 
the JDK software and is invoked by default. To disable the JIT, pass 
the -nojit option to the launcher tool:

    java -nojit MyClass
    jre -nojit MyClass

Some JDK tools, such as appletviewer, run by invoking a launcher. To
use these tools without the JIT, uses the -D option to pass the -nojit
option to the launcher:

    appletviewer -D-nojit mypage.html

With the java tool, setting JAVA_COMPILER also affects JIT usage. The
jre tool ignores JAVA_COMPILER. Both tools also use the java.compiler
property to determine JIT usage. See the appropriate tool
documentation.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
MICROSOFT WINDOWS INSTALLATION TROUBLESHOOTING
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Here are four troubleshooting tips for Microsoft Windows.

   * If you see the following error message 

        net.socketException: errno = 10047

        -or-

        Unsupported version of Windows Socket API

     check which TCP/IP drivers you have installed. The AppletViewer
     supports only the Microsoft TCP/IP drivers included with 
     Windows 95. If you are using third-party drivers (e.g., 
     Trumpet Winsock), you'll need to change over to the native
     Microsoft TCP/IP drivers if you want to load applets over the
     network. 

   * If the AppletViewer does not load applets then you might
     try the following: 

      1. set HOMEDRIVE=c:
         set HOMEPATH=\
         and restart the AppletViewer (in the same DOS box) 

      2. set HOME=c:\
         and restart the AppletViewer (in the same DOS box) 

     If none of these work, try: 

         java -verbose sun.applet.AppletViewer

     This lists the classes that are being loaded. From this output, 
     you can determine which class the AppletViewer is trying to 
     load and where it's trying to load it from. Check to make sure
     that the class exists and is not corrupted in some way. 

   * Error Message: "Exception in thread NULL"
     or "Unable to initialize threads: cannot find class 
     java/lang/Thread" (yes, with forward slashes)

     If you are getting one of these fatal error messages 
     when running java, javac, or appetviewer, you should check 
     your CLASSPATH environment variable. It may list 
     "c:\java" or the "classes" directory from an older 
     release.  You can either unset the CLASSPATH variable, 
     or set it to include only the latest version of the Java 
     platform class library.  For example: 

        C:\> set CLASSPATH=.;C:\jdk1.1.6\lib\classes.zip

     This will make sure that you are using the correct classes 
     for this release.

   * Cannot close AppletViewer copyright window (Windows 95 only)
     In Microsoft Windows 95, the launch bar may partially cover
     the AppletViewer copyright notice window Accept and Reject 
     buttons. If this happens, you can move the Windows 95
     launch bar to the side of the desktop to allow access to 
     the copyright window Accept and Reject buttons.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
POSSIBLE PROBLEMS WITH WINSOCK
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
When installing the JDK software on a Windows 95 system, the installer 
will check to see if Winsock 2 is installed on the system. Winsock 2 is 
the most recent version of the networking layer (Winsock) for Windows 
and is published by Microsoft. If Winsock 2 isn't installed, the 
installer will offer to install it.

Winsock 2 is advertised as being fully backward compatible with
Winsock 1.1, its predecessor. Occasionally, however, some Windows
configurations seem be adversely affected after installing Winsock 2. 
Problems that have been reported include networking programs (such
as news and mail readers, browsers, etc) that stop working or even
start crashing.

If this happens on your system, you should remove Winsock 2 from your
system. This is a simple, three-step procedure:

1. go to C:\Windows\WS2BAKUP directory
2. run the WS2BAKUP.BAT script
3. reboot your machine

Even without Winsock 2, the JDK software will continue to work properly. 
In heavy multi-tasked network applications, such as servers, Winsock 1.1
bugs may manifest themselves. Most other applications will be
unaffected. We recommend that you upgrade to Winsock 2 as soon as
possible.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
RUNNING JDK TOOLS IN SOLARIS
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
After installing the JDK software, you start a tool by typing its
name into a shell window with a filename as an argument.  You can 
specify the path to a tool either by typing the path in front of 
the tool each time, or by adding the path to the startup file.  
For example, if the JDK software is installed at /usr/local/jdk1.1.6, 
to run the complier on a file myfile.java, go to a shell and execute:

    Type:  /usr/local/jdk1.1.6/bin/javac myfile.java

     -or- 

    Add  /usr/local/jdk1.1.6/bin to your path statement 
    Type:  javac myfile.java

The path and CLASSPATH variables are not required, but it is helpful 
to know more about them.  See the next section about setting these 
variables.


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
SOLARIS PATH and CLASSPATH
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
The CLASSPATH is not required, but if it is set, it will need to be 
unset.  You may want to update the "path" variable for convenience.

     NOTE - If you want to develop in both version 1.0.2 and 
     version 1.1.6, you must set CLASSPATH (and path) separately
     for each one.  To run both versions simultaneously, you 
     can run each one from its own shell window.  If you are
     running only one at a time, you can write a batch script 
     to switch the value of CLASSPATH (and PATH). 

  1. Path Variable -  Add the absolute path of the "jdk1.1.6/bin"
     directory to your Unix path variable, as follows.  

     The path variable enables Solaris to find the executables 
     (javac, java, javadoc, etc.) from any current directory.
     To find out if the path is currently set for any java tools,
     execute:

        % which java

     This will print the path to java, if it can find it.

     If you use the C shell (csh), you can set the path in 
     your startup file (~/.cshrc) as follows, for example:

        set path=($path /usr/local/jdk1.1.6/bin)

     Then load the startup file and verify that the path 
     is set by repeating the "which" command above:

        % source ~/.cshrc
        % which java

  2. CLASSPATH Environment Variable - If you follow the default 
     installation, you do not need to set CLASSPATH, because the
     shell scripts automatically set it for you.    If your CLASSPATH 
     has not previously been set, you can skip this step.


     If you want to develop in both 1.0.2 and 1.1.6, you must set 
     CLASSPATH separately for each one.  To run both simultaneously, 
     run each one in its own DOS window.  If you are running only one 
     at a time, you can write a batch script to switch the value of 
     CLASSPATH. 

     UNSETTING CLASSPATH

       If you have previously set the CLASSPATH and want to
       unset it, you normally need to change the current value
       (at the command line) and the startup value (in a startup
       file or script).  For example, to see if it is currently 
       set, type:

          % echo $CLASSPATH

       If it is set, you can unset the current value by typing:

          % unsetenv CLASSPATH

       Also open your startup file (~/.cshrc) or script and 
       remove the path to the JDK classes from the CLASSPATH 
       environment variable if you want the change to be 
       permanent.

     WHAT CLASSPATH DOES

       The CLASSPATH tells the Java virtual machine and other 
       applications (which are located in the "jdk1.1.6/bin" directory) 
       where to find the class libraries, such as classes.zip file  
       (which is in the lib directory).  By default, the java tools 
       temporarily append the following to whatever CLASSPATH 
       you have explicitly set in your startup file:

       .:[bin]/../classes:[bin]/../lib/classes.zip

       where [bin] is substituted by the absolute path to the 
       jdk1.1/bin directory.  Therefore, if you keep the bin and 
       lib directories at the same directory level (that is, if
       they have a common parent directory), the executables
       will find the classes.  You need to set the CLASSPATH only 
       if you move classes.zip or want to load a different library
       (such as one you develop).  

     Refer to the Solaris Installation Troubleshooting section below 
     if you have problems running the JDK software.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
SOLARIS INSTALLATION TROUBLESHOOTING
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
   * Error Message: "Exception in thread NULL"
     or "Unable to initialize threads: cannot find class java/lang/Thread"

     If you are getting one of these fatal error messages 
     when running java, javac, or appetviewer, you should check 
     your CLASSPATH environment variable. It may list 
     "java" or the "classes" directory from an older 
     release.  You can either unset the CLASSPATH variable, 
     or set it to include only the latest version of the Java platform 
     class library.  For example: 

     % setenv CLASSPATH .:/usr/local/jdk1.1.6/lib/classes.zip

     This will ensure that you are using the correct classes for 
     this release.


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
RUNNING APPLETS WITH THE APPLETVIEWER
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
AppletViewer allows you to run one or more applets that are called by 
reference in a web page (HTML file) using the APPLET tag.  The
AppletViewer finds the APPLET tags in the HTML file and runs the 
applets (in separate windows) as specified by the tags.

AppletViewer is for viewing applets.  It cannot display an entire 
web page that contains many HTML tags.  It parses only the APPLET 
tag and no other HTML on the web page.
  
To run an applet with appletviewer, you go to a command line for 
your operating system and run appletviewer, passing in the filename 
or URL of the web page as its argument. 
_______
SOLARIS

  Here is an example of how to invoke AppletViewer on a file-based
  web page in Solaris.  First change to the "jdk1.1.6" directory.  
  Then execute:

  bin/appletviewer demo/GraphLayout/example1.html

  Here is an example of how to invoke AppletViewer on a URL-based
  web page in Solaris. Execute:

  bin/appletviewer http://java.sun.com/applets/NervousText/example1.html
_______
WINDOWS
  Here is an example of how to invoke AppletViewer on a file-based
  web page in Windows.  Go to a DOS prompt, change to the "jdk1.1.6" 
  directory and then execute:

  bin\appletviewer demo\GraphLayout\example1.html

  Here is an example of how to invoke AppletViewer on a URL-based
  web page in Windows. Execute:

  bin\appletviewer http://java.sun.com/applets/NervousText/example1.html

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
DEBUGGING PROGRAMS WITH THE DEBUGGER (JDB)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
You can debug applets using the -debug option of appletviewer.
When debugging applets, it's best to invoke appletviewer from
the directory that contains the applet's HTML file.  For example,
on Solaris:

     cd demo/TicTacToe
     ../../bin/appletviewer -debug example1.html

On the PC:

     cd demo\TicTacToe
     ..\..\bin\appletviewer -debug example1.html

You can find documentation on the debugger and its API at:

     http://java.sun.com/products/jdk/1.1/debugging/

    

=======================================================================
		      DEPLOYING JAVA APPLICATIONS
=======================================================================

A Java application, unlike a Java applet, cannot rely on a web browser
for installation and runtime services. When you deploy a Java
application, your software bundle will probably consist of the
following parts:

      * Your own class, resource, and data files.

      * A runtime environment.

      * An installation procedure or program.

The first item, you already have, of course. The remainder of this
section covers the other two items.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
RUNTIME ENVIRONMENT
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
To run your application, a user needs a Java virtual machine, the Java
platform core classes, and various support programs and files. This
collection of software is known as a runtime environment.

The JDK software serves as a runtime environment. However, you probably
can't assume your users have the JDK software installed, and your JDK
software license doesn't allow you to redistribute JDK software files.

JavaSoft provides a free, redistributable runtime environment called
the Java Runtime Environment. Versions of this are are available for
all platforms that run the JDK software. The Java Runtime Environment
Version 1.1.6 is available for download at: 

    http://java.sun.com/products/jdk/1.1/jre/

The Win32 versions comes with a built-in installation program suitable
for end-users. Solaris versions require the developer to provide
installation support.

The Java Runtime Environment for Win32 is available both with and
without international support. The non-international version is much
smaller, but is suitable only for English-speaking users. 

JavaSoft is not the only supplier of runtime software for Java
programs. If you use a third-party runtime, you should make sure it is
fully compatible with the Java Runtime Environment.

For information on third-party runtime environments, see:

    http://java.sun.com/cgi-bin/java-ports.cgi


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
INSTALLATION
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
The final step in the deployment process occurs when the software is
installed on individual user system. Installation consists of copying
software onto the user's system, then configuring the user's system to
support that software.

This step includes installing and configuring the runtime environment.
If you use the Java Runtime Environment, you must make sure that your
installation procedure never overwrites an existing installation,
unless the existing Java Runtime Environment is an older version.

The Win32 version of the Java Runtime Environment is distributed as a
self-installing executable. A simple way to redistribute the Java
Runtime Environment is to include this executable in your software
bundle. You can then have your installation program run the executable,
or simply instruct the user to install the Java Runtime Environment
before installing the rest of your bundle.

The Win32 installation program records program information in the
Windows Registry. This registry information includes the software
version, which you should compare with the Java Runtime Environment
version in your software bundle. For more information, refer to the the
Java Runtime Environment Notes for Developers at:

    http://java.sun.com/products/jdk/1.1/runtime.html

A more sophisticated approach is to install the Java Runtime
Environment on your own system, then copy the files you need into your
own installation set. If you choose this approach, you must include all
files described as "required" in the Java Runtime Environment README.
The Java Runtime Environment software can only be redistributed if all
"required" files are included. See the LICENSE file for specifics.

If you use this approach, do not try to emulate the installation steps
performed by the Java Runtime Environment installer. You might "break"
an existing Java Runtime Environment installation by missing a new or
undocumented installation step. Instead, you should include the Java
Runtime Environment files in your own application directory. In effect,
your application has its own "private" copy of the Java Runtime
Environment.

If your application uses the networking classes, it may not run
reliably under Winsock 1.1. (See "Possible Problems with Winsock,"
under "Installing and Running the JDK Software," above.) If your
networking application must support Windows 95, which comes with
Winsock 1.1, you will want to include a Winsock 2.0 install in your
installation procedure. (Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 98 come with
Winsock 2.0.) To provide Winsock 2.0, you need the Microsoft Windows
Sockets 2.0 Software Development Kit. This free software can be
downloaded from the following addresses:

    http://www.microsoft.com/win32dev/netwrk/winsock2/ws295sdk.html
    http://www.microsoft.com/windows95/info/ws2.htm
    ftp://ftp.microsoft.com/bussys/WinSock/winsock2/

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
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901 San Antonio Rd., Palo Alto, CA 94303 USA
All rights reserved.