CONTENTS | PREV | NEXT Extensible Runtime Containment and Services Protocol for JavaBeans

2.0 API Specification

2.1 interface java.beans.beancontext.BeanContext

The hierarchal structure and general facilities of a BeanContext are provided for as follows:

public interface java.beans.beancontext.BeanContext
         extends java.beans.beancontext.BeanContextChild,
		 	     java.beans.Visibility {

	Object instantiateChild(String beanName)
		    throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException;

	public InputStream
		getResourceAsStream(String           name,
		                    BeanContextChild requestor

		getResource(String           name,
		            BeanContextChild requestor

	void addBeanContextMembershipListener(
		    BeanContextMembershipListener bcml

	void removeBeanContextMembershipListener{
		    BeanContextMembershipListener bcml

	public static final Object globalHierarchyLock;

Notifications of changes in the membership of a BeanContext are modeled as follows:

public interface BeanContextMembershipListener
	   extends   java.util.Listener {
	void childrenAdded(BeanContextMembershipEvent   bcme);
	void childrenRemoved(BeanContextMembershipEvent bcme);


The base class of all BeanContext related Events is defined by:

public abstract class BeanContextEvent
	   extends  java.util.EventObject {
	public BeanContext getBeanContext();

	public synchronized void
		setPropagatedFrom(BeanContext bc);

	public synchronized BeanContext getPropagatedFrom();

	public synchronized boolean isPropagated()


The BeanContextMembershipEvent is defined as:

public class BeanContextMembershipEvent
	   extends BeanContextEvent {

	public BeanContextMembershipEvent(BeanContext bc,
	                                  Object[]    deltas);

	public BeanContextMembershipEvent(BeanContext bc,
	                                  Collection	 deltas);

	public int size();

	public boolean contains(Object child);

	public Object[] toArray();

	public Iterator iterator();


2.1.1 The BeanContext as a participant in nested structure

One of the roles of the BeanContext is to introduce the notion of a hierarchical nesting or structure of BeanContext and JavaBean instances. In order to model this structure the BeanContext must expose API that defines the relationships in the structure or hierarchy.

The BeanContext exposes its superstructure through implementation of the java.beans.beancontext.BeanContextChild interface (as described later). This interface allows the discovery and manipulation of a BeanContext's nesting BeanContext, and thus introduces a facility to create a hierarchy of BeanContexts.

The BeanContext exposes its substructure through a number of interface methods modeled by the java.util.Collection interface semantics

BeanContexts are required to implement all the mandatory Collection API's, with the following particular semantics for add() and remove():.

The add() method may be invoked in order to nest a new Object, BeanContextChild, or BeanContext within the target BeanContext. A conformant add() implementation is required to adhere to the following semantics:

The remove() method may be invoked in order to remove an existing child JavaBean or BeanContext from within the target BeanContext. A conformant remove() implementation is required to adhere to the following semantics:

Note that the lifetime of any child of a nesting BeanContext, is at least for the duration of that child's containment within a given BeanContext. For simple JavaBeans that are not aware of their containment within a BeanContext, this usually implies that the JavaBean shall exist for at least the lifetime of the nesting BeanContext.

BeanContext's are not required to implement either addAll(), removeAll(), retainAll() or clear() optional methods defined by java.util.Collection API, however if they do they must implement the semantics defined, per object, for both add() and remove() above. In the failure cases these methods shall revoke any partially applied changes to return the BeanContext to the state it was in prior to the failing composite operation being invoked, no BeanContextEvents shall be fired in the failure case as is consistent with the definition of add() and remove() above.

BeanContextMembershipListeners may be added and removed via invocations of addBeanContextMembershipListener() and removeBeanContextMembershipListener().

The toArray(), method shall return a copy of the current set of JavaBean or BeanContext instances nested within the target BeanContext, and the iterator() method shall supply a java.util.Iterator object over the same set of children.

The contains() method shall return true if the object specified is currently a child of the BeanContext.

The size() method returns the current number of children nested.

The isEmpty() method returns true iff the BeanContext has no children.

Note that all the Collection methods all require proper synchronization between each other by a given implementation in order to function correctly in a multi-threaded environment, that is, to ensure that any changes to the membership of the set of JavaBeans nested within a given BeanContext are applied atomically. All implementations are required to synchronized their implementations of these methods with the BeanContext.globalHierarchyLock.

In some situations, add() and remove() (or a variant thereof) operations may occur nested, that is multiple occurrences may appear on the stack of the calling Thread simultaneously, e.g: when BeanContextChild, A, is added (or removed), it's setBeanContext() method also adds (or removes) another BeanContextChild, B. A particular BeanContext implementation may choose to fire either two BeanContextMembershipListener notifications, one for each add()/remove() operation of B then A (in this order since B is successfully added before A), or coalesce these into a single notification containing both A, and B. Note that should A be unable to be added or removed for any reason it shall not perform, or undo, any add or remove operations upon B as a side-effect, prior to throwing a PropertyVetoException to indicate this condition, that is, it must avoid or undo any side-effect membership changes prior to rejecting any changes to its own membership status.

The instantiateChild() method is a convenience method that may be invoked to instantiate a new JavaBean instance as a child of the target BeanContext. The implementation of the JavaBean is derived from the value of the beanName actual parameter, and is defined by the java.beans.Beans.instantiate() method.

Typically, this shall be implemented by calling the appropriate java.beans.Beans.instantiate() method, using the ClassLoader of the target BeanContext. However a particular BeanContext implementation may interpose side-effects on the instantiate operation in their implementation of this method.

The BeanContextEvent is the abstract root EventObject class for all Events pertaining to changes in state of a BeanContext's defined semantics. This abstract root class defines the BeanContext that is the source of the notification, and also introduces a mechanism to allow the propagation of BeanContextEvent subclasses through a hierarchy of BeanContexts. The setPropagatedFrom() and getPropagatedFrom() methods allows a BeanContext to identify itself as the source of a propagated Event to the BeanContext to which it subsequently propagates the Event to. This is a general propagation mechanism and should be used with care as it has significant performance implications when propagated through large hierarchies.

The BeanContextMembershipEvent describes changes that occur in the membership of a particular BeanContext instance. This event encapsulates the list of children either added to, or removed from, the membership of a particular BeanContext instance, i.e the delta in the membership set.

whenever a successful add(), remove(), addAll(), retainAll(), removeAll(), or clear() is invoked upon a particular BeanContext instance, a BeanContextMembershipEvent is fired describing the children effected by the operation.

2.1.2 Resources.

The BeanContext defines two methods; getResourceAsStream() and getResource() which are analogous to those methods found on java.lang.ClassLoader. BeanContextChild instances nested within a BeanContext shall invoke the methods on their nesting BeanContext in preference for those on ClassLoader, to allow a BeanContext implementation to augment the semantics by interposing behavior between the child and the underlying ClassLoader semantics.

2.1.3 The BeanContext as a Service Provider

The service facilities of a BeanContext are provided as follows:

public interface BeanContextServices
	   extends   BeanContext,BeanContextServicesListener {

	boolean addService(Class           serviceClass, 
	                   BeanContextServiceProvider service);

	boolean revokeService(Class           serviceClass,
	                      BeanContextServiceProvider bcsp,
	                      boolean         revokeNow

	boolean hasService(Class serviceClass);

	Object getService(BeanContextChild      bcc,
	                  Object                requestor.
	                  Class                 serviceClass,
	                  Object                serviceSelector,
	                  BeanContextServicesRevokedListener sl
	) throws TooManyListenersException;

	void releaseService(BeanContextChild bcc,
	                    Object           requestor,
	                    Object           service);

	Iterator getCurrentServiceClasses();

	public Iterator getCurrentServiceSelectors(Class sc);

		BeanContextServicesListener bcsl

		BeanContextServicesListener bcsl
The BeanContextServiceProvider interface is defined as follows:

public interface BeanContextServiceProvider {
    Object getService(BeanContext bc,
	                  Object      requestor,
	                  Class       serviceCls,
	                  Object      serviceSelector);

	void releaseService(BeanContext bc,
	                    Object      requestor,
	                    Object      service);

	Iterator getCurrentServiceSelectors(BeanContext bc,
	                                    Class serviceCls);
The BeanContextServiceRevokedListener is defined as follows:
public interface BeanContextServiceRevokedListener
	   extends java.util.EventListener {
	void serviceRevoked(
		BeanContextServiceRevokedEvent bcsre
The BeanContextServicesListener is defined as follows:

public interface BeanContextServicesListener
	   extends BeanContextServiceRevokedListener {
	void serviceAvailable(
		BeanContextServiceAvailableEvent bcsae
The BeanContextServiceAvailableEvent is defined as follows:

public class BeanContextServiceAvailableEvent 
	   extends BeanContextEvent {

	public BeanContextServiceAvailableEvent(
			BeanContextServices        bcs,
			Class                      sc

	BeanContextServices getSourceAsBeanContextServices();

	public Class getServiceClass();

	public boolean isServiceClass(Class serviceClass);

	public Iterator getCurrentServiceSelectors();

The BeanContextServiceRevokedEvent is defined as follows:

public class BeanContextServiceRevokedEvent 
	   extends BeanContextEvent {
	public BeanContextServiceRevokedEvent(
				BeanContextServices        bcs,
				Class                      sc,
			    boolean                    invalidNow

	public BeanContextServices

	public Class getServiceClass();

	public boolean isServiceClass(Class service);

	public boolean isCurrentServiceInvalidNow();
The BeanContextServiceProviderBeanInfo is defined as follows:

public interface BeanContextServicesProviderBeanInfo
       extends   java.beans.BeanInfo {
    java.beans.BeanInfo[] getServicesBeanInfo();
Apart from providing a structured hierarchy, the other major role of a BeanContext is to provide a standard mechanism for a JavaBean component to obtain context-specific facilities or services from its environment.

A service, represented by a Class object, is typically a reference to either an interface, or to an implementation that is not publicly instantiable. This Class defines an interface protocol or contract between a BeanContextServiceProvider, the factory of the service, and an arbitrary object associated with a BeanContextChild that is currently nested within the BeanContext the service is registered with. Typically such protocols encapsulate some context specific or sensitive behavior that isolates a BeanContextChild's implementation from such dependencies thus resulting in simpler implementations, greater interoperability and portability.

A BeanContextServiceProvider, is a "factory" for one or more services. It registers itself with a particular BeanContextServices via it's adService() method, if the service is not already registered with the BeanContextServices, the BeanContextServices associates the service specified with the BeanContextServiceProvider, and fires a BeanContextServiceAvailableEvent via the serviceAvailable() method to those BeanContextServicesListeners currently registered, then returns true, otherwise false indicating that the service is already registered for that BeanContextServices.

Once registered, and until revoked, the service is available via the BeanContextServices getService() method.

The hasService() method may be used to test the presence of a particular service, and the getCurrentServices() method returns an iterator over the currently available services for that BeanContextServices.

A BeanContextChild or any arbitrary object associated with a BeanContextChild, may obtain a reference to a currently registered service from its nesting BeanContextServices via an invocation of the getService() method. The getService() method specifies; the BeanContextChild, the associated requestor, the Class of the service requested, a service dependent parameter (known as a Service Selector), and a BeanContextServicesRevokedListener used to subsequently notify the requestor that the service class has been revoked by the BeanContextServiceProvider. The Listener is registered automatically with a unicast event source per requestor and service class and is automatically unregistered when a requestor relinquishes all references of a given service class, or as a side effect of the service being "forcibly revoked" by the providing BeanContextServiceProvider.

The BeanContextServices passes this getService() invocation onto the associated BeanContextServiceProvider (if any) to be satisfied via an invocation of its getService() method. The BeanContextServiceProvider is passed the BeanContext, the Class of the service provided, the service dependent service parameter (the Service Selector) and a reference to the object requesting the service.

The reference to the BeanContext is intended to enable the BeanContextServiceProvider to distinguish service requests from multiple sources. A BeanContextServiceProvider is only permitted to retain a weak reference to any BeanContext so obtained.

The Service Selector parameter is a service dependent value used by a service requestor for a particular service in order to parameterize the service to be provided to it by the BeanContextServiceProvider. Some examples of its usage are; a parameter to a constructor for the service implementation class; a value for a particular service's property, or as a key into a map of existing implementations.

The reference to the requestor is intended to permit the BeanContextServiceProvider to interrogate the state of the requestor in order to perform any customization or parameterization of the service, therefore this reference shall be treated as immutable by the BeanContextServicesProvider. Additionally the BeanContextServiceProvider is permitted to retain only weak and immutable reference to both the requestor and the BeanContextChild after returning from the getService() invocation.

The BeanContextServiceProvider may satisfy the request, returning a reference to an instance of the Class of the requested service (such that the reference returned shall result in the expression: <serviceRefence> instanceof <serviceClass> being true), return null, or throw an unchecked exception.

In the case when a nested BeanContextServices is requested for a particular service that it has no BeanContextServiceProvider for, then the BeanContextServices may delegate the service requested to its own nesting BeanContextServices in order to be satisfied. Thus delegation requests can propagate from the leaf BeanContextServices to the root BeanContextServices.

A BeanContextChild may query a particular BeanContextServices for a list of currently available Service Classes (via the getCurrentServiceClasses() method)and any associated Service Selectors, if a particular service Class implements a finite list of apriori values for a Service Class, via its nesting BeanContextServices.getCurrentServiceSelectors() method, which in turn obtains the currently available Service Selectors (if any) via the BeanContextServiceProvider.getCurrentServiceSelectors() method.

If the service in question does not implement a finite set of apriori values for the set of valid Service Selectors it shall return null.

A reference obtained by a BeanContextChild via getService() is valid until the reference is released by the BeanContextChild via an invocation of its nesting BeanContextServices releaseService() method, except in the case where the BeanContextServices fires a BeanContextServiceRevokedEvent and that Event's isCurrentServiceInvalidNow() method returns true, in this case the BeanContextServices and/or the BeanContextServiceProvider that provided the service has determined that current service references are immediately invalidated, or "forcibly revoked" (this typically occurs in the following situation).

When BeanContextChild instances are removed from a particular BeanContextServices instance, they shall discard all references to any services they obtained from that BeanContextServices by appropriate invocations of releaseService(). If the un-nesting BeanContextChild is also a BeanContextServices instance, and if any of these service references have been exposed to the un-nesting BeanContextServices's own members as a result of a delegated getService() request as defined above, the BeanContextServiecs shall fire a BeanContextServiceRevokedEvent to notify its nested children that the service(s) are "forcibly revoked". This immediate invalidation of current references to delegated services at un-nesting is to ensure that services that are dependent upon the structure of the hierarchy are not used by requestors after their location in the structure has changed.

BeanContextChild instances receiving a "forcable revocation" of a Service Class shall not invoke releaseService() for any references it may hold of that type, since in this case, the BeanContextServiceProvider or the BeanContextServices that provided the service reference to that BeanContextChild has already invalidated all references to that service on their behalf.

A BeanContextServiceProvider may revoke a Service Class at any time after it has registered it with a BeanContextServices by invoking its revokeService() method. Once the BeanContextServices has fired a BeanContextServiceRevokedEvent notifying the currently registered BeanContextServiceRevokedListeners and the BeanContextServicesListeners that the service is now unavailable it shall no longer satisfy any new service requests for the revoked service until (if at all) that Service Class is re-registered. References obtained by BeanContextChild requestors to a service prior to its being revoked remain valid, and therefore the service shall remain valid to satisfy those extant references, until all references to that service are released, unless in exceptional circumstances the BeanContextServiceProvider, or BeanContextServices, when revoking the service, wants to immediately terminate service to all the current references. This immediate revocation is achieved by invoking the BeanContextServices .revokeService() method with an actual parameter value of revokeNow == true. Subsequent to immediate invalidation of current service references the service implementation may throw a service specific unchecked exception in response to any attempts to continue to use the revoked service by service requestors that have erroneously retained references to the service, ignoring the earlier immediate revocation notification.

Note that in order to function correctly (when delegating service requests) in a multi-threaded environment, implementations of BeanContextServices are required to synchronize their implementations of; addService(), hasService(), getCurrentServiceClasses(), getCurrentServiceSelectors(), getService(), releaseService() and revokeService() with the BeanContext.globalHierarhyLock.

A BeanContextServicesProvider may expose the BeanInfo for the Service Classes it provides implementations for by providing a BeanInfo class that implements BeanContextServicesProviderBeanInfo. Thus exposing an array of BeanInfo's, one for each Service Class supported. Builder tools can, for example, use this infomation to provide application developers with a palette of Servlice Classes for inclusion in an application.

2.1.4 The role of a BeanContext in Persistence

Since one of the primary roles of a BeanContext is to represent a logical nested structure of JavaBean component and BeanContext instance hierarchies, it is natural to expect that in many scenarios that hierarchy should be persistent, i.e that the BeanContext should participate in persistence mechanisms, in particular, either or (If the latter the BeanContext is responsible for acting as the persistence container for the sub-graph of children, encoding and decoding the class information, and maintaining sub-graph equivalence after deserialization, basically the function(s) provide for serialization by ObjectOutputStream and ObjectInputStream).

In particular BeanContexts shall persist and restore their current children that implement the appropriate persistence interfaces when they themselves are made persistent or subsequently restored.

As a result of the above requirement, persistent BeanContextChild implementations are required to not persist any references to either their nesting BeanContext, or to any Delegates obtained via its nesting BeanContextServices.

BeanContexts shall, when restoring an instance of BeanContextChild from its persistence state, be required to perform the equivalent of invoking add()on the newly instantiated BeanContextChild,, in order to notify the newly restored instance of its nesting BeanContext, thus allowing that BeanContextChild to fully reestablish its dependencies on its environment.

Also note that since BeanContext implements java.beans.beancontext.BeanContextChild it shall obey the persistence requirements defined below for implementors of that interface.

2.1.5 BeanContext with associated presentation hierarchies

Although not required, many BeanContexts may be associated within a presentation hierarchy of java.awt.Containers and java.awt.Components. A Container cannot implement BeanContext directly2 but may be associated with one by implementing the BeanContextProxy interface described herein.

public interface BeanContextProxy {
    BeanContext getBeanContext();

For instances of classes that do not (or cannot in the case of Component or subclasses thereof) directly implement the BeanContext interface, but are associated with an instance of such an implementation, (via delegation) such instances may expose this association by implementing the BeanContextProxy interface. By doing so, this enables arbitrary 3rd parties, such as builder tools, to interrogate and discover The BeanContext associated with such objects for the purposes of either nesting objects within that associated BeanContext, observing changes in the membership, or obtaining services thereof.

This also permits multiple distinct objects (e.g: Containers) to share a single BeanContext. [Note though that in this case a shared BeanContext shall not implement BeanContextContainerProxy since that is a peer-to-peer relationship between a single BeanContext and the Container implementing that interface]

The value returned from getBeanContext() is constant for the lifetime of the implementing instance, that is the relationship between a BeanContextProxy and it's associated BeanContext is static and thus may not change for the lifetime of either participant.

No class may implement both the BeanContext (or BeanContextChild) and the BeanContextProxy interfaces, they are mutually exclusive.

Some BeanContextProxy implementors may also implement java.util.Collection, or some other collection-like API (e.g java.awt.Container), in addition to, and possibly distinct from, maintaining a BeanContext based Collection.

In such cases it is possible to add, or remove, elements from either the BeanContext, via it's Collection API's, or the BeanContextProxy implementor using it's own collection-like API's (e.g: public boolean java.awt.Container.add(Component)). It is implementation dependent whether or not objects added or removed from either the BeanContext's Collection, or the BeanContextProxy implementor's collection are also added or removed from the corresponding object's collection (i.e: should a Container.add() also infer a BeanContext.add() and vica-versa?). In such situations both participants (the implementor of BeanContextProxy and the BeanContext itself) are required to; 1) implement the same add/remove semantics as the other (i.e: if x.add(o) has a side effect of x.getBeanContext().add(o) then x.getBeanContext().add(o) should also a have side effect of x.add(o)), and 2) before adding/removing an object to/from the other participants collection, it should test (synchronized) if that object is/is not a member of the other participants collection before proceeding with the operation in question (this is to avoid infinite recursion between collection operations on both participants) (i.e: x.add(o) should not invoke x.getBeanContext().add(o) if x.getBeanContext().contains(o) is true and vica-versa).

It is important to note that if an object that implements BeanContextProxy is added to , or removed from, a BeanContext, that in addition to the operation performed on that object, the same operation should be performed on the BeanContext returned from BeanContextProxy.getBeanContext(). That is an implementor of BeanContextProxy shall be treated as though it directly implemented BeanContext by any nesting BeanContext. (and vica-versa if the operation is applied to the BeanContext its shall also be applied to the corresponding BeanContextProxy)

The following interface is defined to allow a BeanContext to expose a reference to an associated Container to enable it's BeanContextChild members to add, or remove, their associated Component objects to/from that Container or to inspect some state on the Container.

public interface BeanContextContainerProxy {
	Container getContainer()
When a BeanContextChild with an associated Component is added to a BeanContext with an associated Container there are three models of interaction that can occur in relation to the nesting of the Component in the Container as a result:

  1. If the associated Component was added to the associated Container via a Container API, then the nesting of the BeanContextChild in the BeanContext is a side effect of that and no further action is required.
  2. If the Component and Container are not nested then the nesting BeanContext may as a side effect cause the Component associated with the BeanContextChild to be added to it's associated Container.


  3. If the Component and Container are not nested then the BeanContextChild being nested may as a side effect may cause it's Component to be associated with the Container associated with the nesting BeanContext.
Thus, for greatest interoperability a BeanContextChild shall always check if its Compoent's parent is the BeanContext Container, and if it is not, then it may add itself if appropriate. Thus a BeanContextChild may function correctly under all scenarios.

The BeanContextChild is responsible for initially causing itself to eligible to be displayed via an invocation of show() [note that the BeanContextChild may also subsequently repeatedly hide() and show() itself].

The nesting BeanContext, or its associated Container, may subsequently hide() or show() the BeanContextChild's Component arbitrarily, but it is strongly recommended that it treat that Component as immutable in all other respects with the exception of registering Listeners to obtain event notifications, or where other Component/Container specific protocols permit or require the Container to alter the state of its Component containees. An example of such a permitted interaction would be where a property such as background or foreground color were propagated from Container to Component.

Once a BeanContextChild has been un-nested from it's BeanContext, it's associated Component (if any) shall be removed from that BeanContext's Container as a side effect of the removal operation, this is the responsibility of the BeanContext (typically if the BeanContextChild has been moved to another BeanContext with an associated Container via an invocation of it's setBeanContext() method, the Component will already have been re-parented as a side effect of that operation by the time the original BeanContext is notified of the change via a PropertyChangeEvent from the child, however the check should be made and the Component removed if it has not already occurred).

To avoid infinite recursion, both a BeanContext and a BeanContextChild that also are associated with a Container and Component nesting relationship should avoid undoing any changes applied to the Component by the other party in the relationship. In general the BeanContext is responsible for the appearance, visibility and relative layout of the BeanContextChild's Component, and the BeanContextChild is responsible for the Component's state and content pertaining to the application functionality it is implementing.

The value returned from the getContainer() method is constant for the lifetime of the implementing BeanContext, that is the relationship between a BeanContext and a Container is static for the lifetime of both participants.

In addition the following interface is also defined:

public interface BeanContextChildComponentProxy {
    Component getComponent();
A BeanContext or a BeanContextChild may implement this interface to expose the GUI Component that it is associated with to it's nesting BeanContext. A BeanContext may use this method to establish the relationship between references to instances of Component and BeanContextChild that are known to it, where a BeanContextChild and Component are not implemented by the same object instance (that is the BeanContextChild delegates its Component implementation to a distinct object rather than inheriting from Component]. A BeanContext may interrogate the Component reference it obtains from a nested BeanContextChild in order to determine its state, and it may also register Listeners for particular events, however it is strongly recommended that the BeanContext treat the reference as generally immutable to avoid changing the Component state.

The value returned from the getComponent() method is a constant for the lifetime of that BeanContextChild.

In the situation where a BeanContext has an associated Container, but does not wish to expose that Container by implementing the BeanContextContainerProxy interface, but wishes to handle the nesting of an arbitrary BeanContextChild's associated Component (exposed by the BeanContextChild either implementing the BeanContextChildComponentProxy interface or as direct subclass of Component) the BeanContext is permitted to add/remove that Component to/from its associated Container.In such cases the BeanContextChild and it's associated Component implementation shall not interfere with this action.

If a class implements both BeanContextChildComponentProxy and BeanContextContainerProxy then the object returned by both getComponent() and getContainer() shall be the same object.

  1. Note, it the remove() was invoked as a result of the BeanContext receiving an unexpected PropertyChangeEvent notification as a result of a 3rd party invoking setBeanContext() then the remove implementation shall not invoke setBeanContext(null) on that child as a part of the remove() semantics, since to do so would overwrite the value previously set by the 3rd party.

  2. Unfortunately because of method name collisions between Component and Collection a Component cannot implement BeanContext or Collection directly and must model the capability with a "HasA" rather than an "IsA" relationship.

Copyright © 1998 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved.